Wild Marjoram (Origanum vulgare)
Marjoram is one of over 200 genera in the Lamiaceae (mint family), native to the Mediterranean and Eurasia. All members of the genus have flowers that occur in spikes; for most species these form a panicle with multiple branched stems growing from a central stalk.
It is a half hardy annual; this means it will only last for one season and it is unlikely that it will survive through the winter months. It is best to sow fresh seeds in spring in full sun and in a well-drained soil of average to low fertility. Sow seeds from April. Marjoram is well suited to being grown in pots too. Sow seeds indoors in March in a small pot then transplant into a 30cm diameter pot in May.
Wild Marjoram is an excellent source of nectar and pollen for all kinds of insects. Pollinators, especially bumblebees, bees honeybees and other bees, as well as hover flies and butterflies, are really fond of the nectar-rich flowers and you will soon find your wild marjoram plant a hotspot of pollinator activity in your garden.
Scentless Mayweed (Tripleurospermum inodorum)
Scentless mayweed is a native annual or biennial weed of arable land and waste ground, it is abundant throughout the UK but the distribution is determined by the location of cultivated land. It is recorded up to 1,750 ft. It is moderately resistant to trampling and compaction but it does not thrive in high summer temperatures or drought. It is intolerant of dense shade and waterlogging.
it flowers from June to October and is pollinated by bees and flies. It is self-incompatable in Britain and isolated plants may not set seed. Setting seeds from August to October they start to become viable 12 days after flowering and are fully ripe 4 weeks after the outer florets open. Each flower head can contain 345 to 533 seeds. A plant may produce 10,000 to 200,000 seeds but figures of over a million have been quoted.
Field Poppy (Papaver rhoeas)
Poppies are annual wild flowers which grow in cultivated ground and other open and disturbed habitats. The poppy thrives best on light calcareous soils. A variety of environmental triggers are probably important. Exposure to light, a cold spell, fluctuating soil temperatures and nutrient availability all could play a part. It is vulnerable to herbicides, and tends to occur mainly in field margins and strips of fields that have not been sprayed.
The flowers, which are present from April to August, are visited by a large range of insects, but particularly bees. Each plant is able to produce around 17, 000 seeds, these can remain dormant in the soil for 80 years or more, perhaps even as long as 100 years. The vibrant blood red blooms are supported by hairy stalks; the rounded petals are broader than they are long, and often have a dark spot at the base.
It will normally grow in competition with other weeds and crop plant and it will become the dominant and most conspicuous plant. The flowering of a successful take of poppy can be quite dramatic, but sadly does not usually last long; a few weeks at most. Sowing with other plant species helps to extend the flowering season a bit.
Oxeye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)
The Ox-Eye Daisy is a familiar sight in fields. It is to be found throughout Europe and Russian Asia. It is an attractive grassland perennial and our largest native member of the daisy family. Worldwide there are about 200 species of daisy. It prefers, but is by no means restricted to, well drained, neutral to base rich soils but is absent from wet sites. The plants produce many seeds, a vigorous daisy can produce 26,000 seeds per plant, while smaller specimens produce 1,300 to 4,000 seeds per plant.
By the middle of May, the familiar yellow centred white flower-heads commence to bloom, and are at their best till about the close of June. Beneath each flower-head is a ring of green sheathing bracts, the involucre. These not only protect and support the bloom, but doubtless prevents insects trying to bite their way to the honey from below.
The open flower heads of Ox-eye daisy attract a large range of pollinating insects particularly bees, butterflies and hoverflies.
Red Campion (Silene dioica)
Red campion is a common spring-flowering plant, it occurs as either a biennial or a short-lived perennial herb and once established will come back year after year. The flowers are, as the common name suggests, red in colour, but pink and white-flowered varieties may arise. The leaves at the base of the plants are elliptical in shape with long winged stalks. The upper leaves are hairy, have short stalks and are more oblong in shape.
This species thrives best in lightly shaded habitats. It needs high levels of mineral nutrients and is also found in coastal areas, on cliffs, rock crevices, sea-bird rocks as well as in mountainous habitats including screes. Red Campion will grow easily from seed and can be sown in either the spring or early autumn. It prefers well drained fertile soil but will not grow so well in very heavy clay soils. preferring rich soils that are not too acid.
Red Campion’s come into flower at the end of the bluebell season. The flowers, which are present from May to July are pollinated by long-tonged bumblebees and hoverflies.
Self Heal (Prunella vulgaris)
Self-Heal is a short perennial plant and is about ½–1' tall and unbranched. Very common throughout Britain and all over Europe, it is abundant in pastures and on waste ground. The preference is full or partial sun, and moist to mesic conditions, growth is best in rich loamy soil with high organic content, although other kinds of soil are tolerated. This plant is easy to grow, and can become rather weedy and aggressive.
The blooming period occurs from mid- to late summer and lasts about a month. The stem terminates in a short spike of flowers. Each tubular flower is about ½" long and divided into 2 lips. The upper lip is light purple and functions as a hood, while the lower lip is white and fringed. The lower lip also has two lateral lobes that are smaller and light purple.
The flowers are visited by long-tongued bees, short-tongued bees, small butterflies (primarily Whites and Sulfurs), and skippers. Bee visitors include bumblebees, Anthophorine bees, Little Carpenter bees, Eucerine Miner bees, and Green Metallic bees.
Wild Carrot (Daucus carota)
Wild carrot, also called Queen Anne’s Lace, is a biennial herb originally a native of Southern Europe. The preference is full sunlight, mesic to dry conditions, and soil that contains either loam or clay-loam with a slightly acidic to alkaline pH. However, Wild Carrot will also adapt to partial sun, moist conditions, and other kinds of soil. Habitats include overgrown thickets, degraded prairies, weedy meadows, areas along railroads, grassy roadsides, lawns, pastures, abandoned fields, fence rows, vacant lots, junk yards, and other waste areas.
Flowers bloom in late spring or early summer and continue to blossom until frost. The upper stems terminate in solitary compound umbels of flowers on long naked stalks. The umbel, is a dense, flat-topped cluster 2 to 5 inches across. Each compound umbel consists of 20-90 umbellets, and each umbellet has 15-60 flowers. Flowers are usually white but may have creamy yellow or rose tones. The compound umbels of flowers are 2-5" across and flat-topped to slightly dome-shaped.
The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract primarily small bees, wasps, flies, and beetles. Wild Carrot Wasps (Gasteruption) are among these floral visitors.
Birdsfoot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)
Birdsfoot trefoil is a long lived perennial plant and the common Bird's-foot-trefoil is a member of the pea family. Its yellow flowers look like little slippers and appear in small clusters. They are followed by seed pods that look distinctly like bird's feet or claws. Its leaves have five leaflets and are downy and the name 'Birdsfoot' refers to the radiating seed pods that are said to look like bird’s feet whilst trefoil describes the leaf which is divided into three leaflets. Its other name of Eggs and Bacon is also descriptive as the mature flower is usually the colour of egg yolk whilst the bud is often red.
Sowing between March and April, it can be seen flowering from May to September. It is suitable for both meadows and, because of its tolerance of cutting or grazing, flowery lawns, Inhabits grasslands, such as meadows, downland, montane rock ledges, and hill pastures. It also occurs on sand dunes and coastal cliff-tops.
Pollinating insects find it a perfect source of nectar and it is used as a forage plant for livestock.
Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus)
It is a slender annual with gray-green leaves and bright blue flowers. The flowers may also sometimes be pink, white or purple, and is native to Europe. The flowers grow solitary, and of necessity upon long stalks to raise them among the corn. The bright blue ray florets, that form the conspicuous part of the flower, are large, widely spread, and much cut into. Grows in most zones and is adaptable to many soils and conditions, but prefers alkaline soil with average to dry conditions. It thrives in rich garden soil, but avoid clay.
In the wild germination is mainly in the autumn and winter, but some can germinate following spring cultivations. Sow in spring, 1 to 2 weeks before the last expected frost, for early summer blooms. The first blooms appear 10 to 12 weeks after planting, and last for about a month.
Flowers depend on cross-pollination by bees to set seed. It produces pollen and nectar for many bees especially honeybees and it is also foraged by butterflies and hoverflies. Bees also collect pollen from the cornflowers, which are carried in small, compact, light green patties.
Wild Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)
Red clover is a long lived perennial of hay meadows and other semi-natural grasslands, belonging to the legume family. It commonly grows wild in meadows throughout Europe and Asia but habitats include fields, pastures, vacant lots, grassy areas along roads, weedy meadows and on front and backyard lawns. It is sown as a fodder crop for livestock and has long been used in crop rotation systems because of its ability to fix nitrogen and enriching soils.
Red clover is very distinct as it has a reddish round flower head made up of numerous tubular-shaped flowers. The blooming period usually starts about late spring and can continue, depending on weather right through to late October.
Insect pollinators are required for successful seed set. Clover species offer desirable resources to honeybees, but they must exert a considerable effort to access them due to the shape of the flower. Indeed it is predominantly pollinated by long-tongued bumblebees, as the tongues of honey bees are too short to reach the nectar in this species.
Himalayan Balsam (Impatiens glandulifera)
Himalayan balsam is now a naturalised plant, native to the western and central Himalaya. It can be found especially on riverbanks, around ponds and lakes, ditches and damp meadows and in waste places where it has become a problem weed. It has a preference for high atmospheric humidity and grows in half-shade but also in full sunlight.
Germinating occurs on February-March, followed by rapid shoot extension and leaf expansion from April. Plants flower from July to October. It grows to about 2 m with purplish-pink slipper shaped flowers, the fruit capsules are green and contain many spherical seeds, which may be green or brown, eventually becoming black when they are mature.
Flowers are pollinated by insects. The insects may transfer pollen between flowers of conspecifics or from the same plant. It produces more nectar than any of our native European plants, for that reason it attracts a multitude of pollinators, including bees, wasps and moths.
Honeysuckle (Lonicera caprifolium)
Honeysuckle is a deciduous climbing plant. There are numerous types of honeysuckles, most are either large shrubs or twining vines that are noted for their colorful, trumpet-shaped flowers and sweet scent. Flower colours include orange, red, yellow, and white, depending on the species and variety. Most shrub honeysuckles grow 6 to 15 feet tall and wide, while the vining types grow 10 to 20 feet tall. The leaves are opposite, simple oval, 1-10 cm long. It has white tinged with flowers that produce a sweet, edible nectar.
It blooms in spring to midsummer and it requires light, good air circulation, and adequate drainage to prevent powdery mildew.
Honeysuckle attracts moths, butterflies, bees and other pollinating insects and has special value to bumblebees
Lesser dodder (Cuscuta epithymum)
Dodder is a rootless, parasitic plant in which leaves are reduced to minute scales. Native to Europe, it has since spread across six continents, giving it an almost worldwide occurrence. Upon germination, the seedlings, each with small anchorage roots, begin to actively bend around in a circle, in search of a host. Once a seedling finds a host, it attaches and begins to form haustoria. After locating a host, the anchorage roots die.
The flowering time is from Mid-July to late September. His flowers are sessile, 2-3 mm long from base to corolla sinuses, white-pink to purplish, and borne in compact clusters. The flowers are in dense, round heads, each flower small, light flesh-coloured and wax-like, the corolla bellshaped, four- to five-cleft.
Clover dodder is normally insect-pollinated, but can also self-pollinate. Many different species of insects may contribute to pollination, studies have shown that ants were some of the main pollinators, while another observed visits to the flowers by species of bees, wasps, flies and other insects.
Orpine (Hylotelephium telephium)
Orpine is a succulent herbaceous perennial which typically grows in an upright to semi-upright mound on unbranched stems. It grows as a native of southern and south-west Finland and on the west coast as far up as the top of the Bay of Bothnia. It is easily grown in average, dry to medium, well-drained soils in full sun and tolerates some light part shade in hot summer climates, but will produce weak floppy growth when grown in too much shade or in overly rich soils.
It is in flower from July to August, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees, flies, self. The dried out stem stays rigid and erect throughout the winter, and the plant spreads its small seeds on the wind from early winter onwards. Apart from thick and juicy leaves, orpine also stores water in its swollen root tubers to help it survive dry periods. It can last a long time without wilting.
Orpine is a food plant for large and endangered Apollo butterfly grubs, and the flowers are particularly attractive to bees.
Primroses (Primula vulgaris)
Primula are herbaceous or semi-evergreen perennials, forming a basal rosette of simple leaves, with salver-shaped or bell-shaped flowers which may be solitary or carried in an umbel or in whorls on an erect stem. It is a native plant in Britain, and its distribution remains stable. The familiar wild, pale yellow, single primrose is one of the early signs of spring, coinciding with the first early daffodils.
Primrose flowers bloom in early spring and often lasts throughout summer and in some areas, they will continue to delight the fall season with their outstanding colours. It produces flowers which generally vary in colour from pale cream to deep yellow. Other colour variants include white and pink flowered forms.
The production of two different types of flowers by Primroses, the pin-eyed and thrum-eyed, is an adaptation to promote cross pollination. This diversity of structure ensures cross-fertilization only by such long-tongued insects as bees and moths.
Chicory (Cichorium intybus)
Chicory is a perennial herbaceous plant with a blue or lavender flower. Initially it grows as a rosette of irregularly-toothed basal leaves. Then, later in the season, leafless stems emerge with sky-blue daisy-like flowers scattered along their length. It flowers from July until October and the flowers are 2 to 4 cm. wide and are usually a bright, light blue. There are two rows of involucral bracts - the inner are longer and erect, the outer are shorter and spreading. Flowers generally bloom in the morning, track the sun, and close when sunlight is brightest at mid-day.
Chicory is adapted to a wide range of soil conditions, including acid soils, but grows best on moderately or well-drained soils. For best growth, it requires medium to high soil fertility Sow the seed in May or June, in drills about 1 inch deep, about 12 inches apart, and thin out the young plants to 6 or 8 inches apart in the rows; when well up, water in very dry weather. After the seeding year, chicory will grow vigorously and attempt to produce stems in the late spring and early summer.
Although chicory flowers are perfect, they do not self-pollinate. Insects are used for cross pollination; typically honey bees.
Common Milkwort (Polygala vulgaris)
This is a perennial wildflower which is easy to overlook but well worth looking for and examining through a hand-lens. It blooms from May to September. The flowers are gathered in long terminal inflorescences and sometimes numbering up to 40 flowers in each cluster. The delicate flowers appearing in a variety of colours from dark-blue, through pink to white but the colour of the corolla varies between blue and violet, it can rarely occurs purple forms. The flower's outer three sepals are normally small, green and insignificant, while the inner two sepals are bigger. The inner sepals are usually shorter than the petals. The stalks of the eight stamens are joined together to form a tube, and united with this tube, one on either side, are two tiny petals. On the lower side of the flower lies the third petal.
The Milkwort grows in open, mesic to dry mesic sand prairie. Its habitats are meadows, slopes, edges of forests, heaths, sunny woods, dunes and grasslands. It is frequent in patches on calcerous grassland, from sea level up to 2200 meters.
Bumblebees are the main pollinators. The Milkwort reproduces through seeds, which are dispersed by ants and the wind.
Corn-cockle (Agrostemma githago)
An annual herb of the Pink family. This attractive tall cornfield plant has purple flowers which occur singly on the top of long stalks, the leaves are long and pointed and always grow opposite another leaf. Flower colour is a rich, plummy pink. Flowers are often more than 2 inches in diameter, each petal marked with dots or lines to guide insects to the flower centre for pollination. This annual plant flowers between May and August.
Grow in full sun in average soil. Growing in partial shade will cause them to grow taller with weak stems (that may require staking) and reduce flower production. Seed can be sown onto a bare earth site in the autumn or spring. As the seed is short lived once in the soil it is probably best to avoid sowing in winter or early summer. Corncockle can be established on most soils but does particularly well on free draining sandy loams. Being an annual it requires open ground to re-establish itself, so an autumn cultivation is essential if you wish it to return.
Its flowers seem to serve as preliminary alighting perches for the butterflies and moths by which the flowers are pollinated. Nectar is secreted at the bottom of the tube, whose depth makes the flower unsuitable for bees.
Field Larkspur (Delphinium Consolida)
The Field Larkspur grows wild in cornfields throughout Europe. Though a doubtful native, it is found occasionally in England in considerable quantities in sandy or chalky cornfields. It is an annual, with upright, round stems a foot high or more, pubescent and divided into alternate, dividing branches.
White to pale blue, spurred flowers in a narrow cluster on a finely downy stalk. Pale blue to white, spurred flowers appear in a narrow, terminal spike. Leaves are divided and lobed into narrow segments. Basal leaves often form a winter rosette which withers before the flowers open. The seeds are poisonous, have an acrid and bitter taste, but are inodorous. Larkspurs are among the easiest annuals to grow. Sow them in the garden in early spring – or fall in warm climates. They tolerate most soils, but grow best in light, well-draining soil. Plant larkspurs in full sun and keep the soil slightly moist.
They are pollenized by both bees and butterflies, insects whose tongues have kept pace with the development of certain flowers, such as the larkspur, columbine, and violet, that they may reach into the deep recesses of the spurs where the nectar is hidden from all but benefactors.
Cow Persley (Anthriscus sylvestris)
Cow parsley is a tall, native biennial or perennial wildflower, common in hedgerows and roadsides. It grows rapidly in the summer before dying back and is one of the most familiar wild plants of the British countryside.
Cow parsley belongs to the family of umbellifers, plants that bear their flowers in umbrella-like clusters. The flowers are small and white, and the plant’s leaves, growing on stalks from the tall, green, furrowed and slightly hairy main stem, are feathery and rather fern-like. It is in flower from April through to June. It prefers partial shades on most soil types.
It is a rich source of nectar for hoverflies and honey bees.
Cuckoo flower (Cardamine pratensis)
Cuckooflower, also commonly known as 'Lady's-smock', is a springtime perennial plant with simple, palmately or pinnately divided leaves and short racemes of 4-petalled white, yellow, pink or purplish flowers. Its flowers bloom from April to June and are thought to coincide with the arrival of the first cuckoo. It grows in wet places and at the sides of brooks, although the plant prefers damp, shady locations. It can also be found on roadside verges, meadows and in hedgerows. As a perennial plant, it dies down in the winter and re-grows in the spring.
Cuckooflowers can usually be seen blooming in the south of the country in the first days of April. As you travel north this may become later, but most will be out by the beginning of May. Surface sow into small pots or plugs filled with good compost and gently firm down. Keep under glass where temperatures can be maintained at 20°C, and keep the compost moist but not waterlogged at all times. When large enough to handle pot on and gradually harden off before planting outside at 30cm intervals. Outdoor sowings can be undertaken when temperatures are warm into a well-prepared, weed-free.
It attract bee-flies and long-tongued hoverflies; also providing food for the orange-tip and green veined white butterflies.
Creeping speedwell (Veronica umbrosa)
It is a vigorous semi-evergreen perennial forming a mat of rooting stems bearing small, lance-shaped leaves and loose racemes of deep blue flowers 12mm across, over a long period in spring and summer. Originating from the Republic of Georgia in the former Soviet Union comes this hardy ground cover-type veronica with a rock hard constitution. Forms a low cushion plant, ideal for sunny or part-shady border edge, giving year round effect. Stems and young foliage tinted reddish-bronze, crowded with intense blue flowers for weeks in midsummer, continuing intermittently into autumn.
Veronicas can be grown in full sun or partial shade, but for the best results, plant them where they will receive morning sun and afternoon shade. They are tolerant of a wide range of soil types, but thrive in evenly moist, well-drained soil that has been enriched with a generous amount of compost or other organic matter at planting time.
This lovely plant attracts bee, flies and hoverflies but also providing food for butterflies.
Hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium)
Hogweed is a biennial/perennial growing to 1.8 m (6ft) that belongs to the so-called umbelliferous plants, This species contains a large number of sub-species. Some, but by no means all of them, can cause various problems as detailed at the top of this record. Some of them are distinctly phototoxic,
As a member of the carrot family (an umbellifer), it displays large, umbrella-like clusters of creamy-white flowers which are attractive to a range of insects. From large reddish rhizomatous roots rises a striated, hollow stem with bristly hairs. The leaves can reach 50 centimetres (20 in) of length. They are pinnate, hairy and serrated, divided into 3-5 lobed segments.This plant has pinkish or white flowers with 5 petals. It is in flower from June to September but It can often be seen flowering all year-round and the seeds ripen from July to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by insects (usually bees, wasps and flies).
Hogweed is a very easily grown plant, succeeding in any ordinary garden soil doing best in moist soils or deep woodland. Grows well in full sun or partial shade Very common in waste ground, rough vegetation, roadsides, forestry rides, woodland, gardens.
Marsh marigold (Caltha palustris)
Marsh marigold is a herbaceous perennial, it is found across most of the UK and Europe (although rare in Mediterranean regions), Northern Asia and large parts of North America and is believed to be one of Britain’s most ancient native plants. Its name is derived from the Greek for 'goblet', indeed its other common name is 'Kingcup'.
It flowers from mid-March till the middle of June, the flowers being at the end of the stems, which divide into two grooved flowerstalks, each bearing one blossom, from 1 to 2 inches in diameter. The Marsh Marigold is closely allied to various species of buttercups, but the flower has no real corolla, the brilliant yellow cup being composed of the five petaloid sepals.
Growing marsh marigold plants in moist woodlands and near ponds is simple and marsh marigold care is very easy. Planting young potted plants in spring or summer and ensuring that they are well watered during the establishment phase, It basically takes care of itself and is suited only to moist areas with well draining soil. In fact, any moist or boggy area is appropriate for growing marsh marigolds. It is very attractive to pollinators especially, butterflies and hummingbirds.
Rest-harrow (Ononis repens)
Restharrow is a perennial, low-growing creeping plant and grows to 0.6 m (2ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It uses an odor unattractive to rabbits and sheep and its name comes form the time when it was a common agricultural weed and the roots were so tough and dense that they would entangle the farmer's harrow pulled by a horse and bring the thing to a halt.
Most commonly grows in England, it can be found along river and also in dunes, on plains and in sandy grasslands. It is in flower from June to September, and the seeds ripen from August to October. It has leaves that are greasy to the touch and divided into three oval leaflets and hairy stems and clusters of small, pink, pea-like flowers. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees and is also a food plant for common blue butterflies.
It prefers a sunny position in a well-drained neutral to alkaline soil. Succeeds on the tops of walls and on dry banks and it can spread rapidly when well sited, moreover it has become an obnoxious weed in some areas.
Harebell (Campanula rotundifolia)
The harebell, often known as 'bluebell' in Scotland, is a member of the bluebell family; the name of the genus Campanula derives from the Latin for 'bell', and refers to the shape of the flowers. It is a perennial plant of about ½–1½' unbranched and can also be found throughout much of North America and Europe.
The blooming period occurs from early to late summer, and lasts about 2-3 months. A typical flower is about ¾" long, the central stem (and some of the side stems) terminates in either a solitary flower, or a short raceme of 2-3 flowers. These flowers are violet and bell-shaped.
In spite of its delicate beauty, this plant can thrive in adverse growing conditions and drought; its wide native habitat includes rocky cliffs, gravel, sand, and woodland and prefers full sunlight and moist to dry conditions.
Various bees often visit the flowers, where they seek nectar, on the other hand seeds are too small to be of any interest to birds.
Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris)
Groundsel is a winter, spring, or summer annual that becomes 3-10" tall at maturity, branching occasionally. It is a very common weed throughout Europe and Russian Asia, not extending to the tropics and abundant in Britain, being found up to the height of I,600 feet in Northumberland. It inhabits vegetable and agronomic croplands, gardens, nurseries, orchards, vineyards, landscaped areas and yards, roadsides and other disturbed, unmanaged places.
The upper stems terminate in small dense clusters of flowerheads on very short peduncles and the apex of each flowerhead is densely crowded with tiny disk florets.The blooming period for a colony of plants can occur from early spring to late fall, although blooming plants are mostly likely to be encountered during the cool weather of spring or fall. Individual plants remain in bloom for about 2-4 weeks. Afterwards, the disk florets are replaced by slender achenes that are finely short-pubescent.
The tiny florets occasionally attract flower flies and small bees. Insects that feed on this plant include beetles, aphids and moths.
Great hairy willowherb (Epilobium hirsutum)
It is a perennial herb that spreads by rhizomes, member of the Onagraceae family of plants so also related to the evening primroses. It is called 'hairy willowherb' because of its downy stem and this is also the source of its Latin name (hirsutus being Latin for shaggy or hairy) and is common throughout most of Britain, with the exception of the far north-west. it is typically found in damp, open habitats such as pond or stream banks, marshes, ditches, damp woodlands and waste ground.
It blooms from June to August. The flowers are numerous and large, rose purple, bell-shaped and partly drooping, the petals broad and notched. In this species, stigmas and anthers ripen together and the plant is capable of self pollination, but cross-pollination is ensured by insect visitors by the more prominent position of the stigmas. Insect visitors are, however, not very numerous, and in their absence the stigmas curl back and touch the anthers.
Greater stitchwort (Stellaria holostea)
This wildflower is widespread and very common throughout Britain and Ireland but it can be found in northern and central mainland European countries, too. Greater Stitchwort is a native, conspicuous, patch-forming, herb growing up to 60cm, The white flower are up to 3cm across with 5 deeply cleft, rounded petals and the blooming period occurs from April to June. This straggly white-flowered perennial makes quite a show in hedgerows when it is interspersed with Red Campion and Bluebells in late spring.
It grows on well drained, slightly shaded soils on the edges of woods, roads and footpaths. It is particularly common on hedgebanks and in hedges. It thrives best in a semi-shaded clearing on the edge of a forest or meadow, but thanks to its powerful vegetative propagation it survives even if all the trees are cut down and bushes take over.
The flowers are much more conspicuous, however, and larger, though it is true that they grow less in the open, but they are visited by a variety of insects. There is a honey-pit above, and the glands yield abundant honey, which explains the frequency of insect visits.
Dog rose (Rosa canina)
The common Dog rose is a variable deciduous, scrambling shrub, growing up to 4m, native to Europe, West Asia and Africa. There are many species of wild rose, which are all very similar and difficult to identify; they all have white or pink flowers, thorns and red hips in the winter. It has multiple arching stems. Stems are covered with thorns that are stout, flattened, downward-curving and unequal in size. It loves to grow in woodlands, copses, scrub, and hedges, throughout Britain, up to altitudes of 550 metres.
All roses can be grown in sun or light shade, and thrive in well-drained, slightly acid soil. The blooming period is from June to July. Its flowers have five white to pink petals 0.8 to 1 inch long and grow solitary or in small clusters at the ends of branches. These give rise to the familiar fruits, known as ‘hips’, which duly ripen to their glorious scarlet colour during early to mid autumn.
Birds and other wildlife consume the hips of dog rose and spread the seed. For this reason areas invaded with dog rose can become dominated by the plant.
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
Yarrow is a perennial herb that produces one to several stems (8 to 16 inches tall), native to Europe and Asia. Yarrow is easily cultivated, will survive in poor soil and is drought tolerant.. Prefers a well-drained soil in a sunny position. Grows in most types of grassland habitat, including coastal sand dunes, lawns, road verges, waste ground and montane grasslands.
Yarrow is dormant in the winter months, although leaves can remain green. Rhizomes resume growth in spring. Flower stalks develop by mid-summer, and flowers are generally produced from mid-summer through early fall, followed by mid-autumn seed maturation. The flowers, white or pale lilac, being like minute daisies, in flattened dome shape (with approximately 10-20 ray flowers)
It is a very pollinators friendly plant in fact its flowers are visited by a huge range of insects thank to their aromatic scent.